There is a high rate of co-morbidity of learning disabilities and ADHD, with empirical evidence indicating an association with math and reading difficulties, but there is little research on the written expression of this population. There is a body of emergent research indicating that written expression is mediated by executive function.
Written expression is a complex task that is affected by motivation, working memory, cognitive processes and long term memory, factors which are reported to be compromised in ADHD populations.
This study evaluated the working memory and fluid reasoning in children with combined and predominantly inattentive types and without ADHD. Second, it explored the relationship between working memory and fluid reasoning on written expression in children with and without ADHD. Finally, the possible link between the executive functions of working memory and fluid reasoning, with written expression of children with and without ADHD was examined. The findings of this study indicate that children with the combined type of ADHD had lower written expression and working memory scores compared to children with the inattentive type of ADHD.
The results of this study also indicated an association between disinhibition and working memory deficits on written expression performance. This research will serve to contribute to an understanding of the functional impact of ADHD on academic performance.
Findings from this study could potentially help with interventions for deficits in written expression among school children.
Fluid reasoning deficits in children with ADHD: Evidence from fMRI
Department Educational Psychology. Search Repository. This Collection. View Usage Statistics.Do you like challenges? Do your friends tell you that you are a creative problem-solver?
If so, it might mean that you have a high level of fluid reasoning!The “9 Intelligences” and Fluid vs Crystallized - Can you Improve Intelligence?
Crystallized intelligence is based on what we learn from past experiences, knowledge, education, and culture. Fluid intelligence or fluid reasoning is the ability to apply logic and reasoning to a novel situation. It is applied in brief moments and is independent of any past knowledge.
However, it is being used on a day to day problem-solving level. What would be your strategy in this situation? How would you deal with it? Fluid reasoning consists of creative problem solving, outside the box thinking, ability to reframe the situation and see it from a new perspective. Children interact and experiment with their environment.
Through these experiences, they gain knowledge, learn new things, master new skills and develop new abilities. Fluid reasoning involves observing and identifying new patterns. Fluid intelligence is the ability to use fluid reasoning in novel situations. It makes you flexible and adaptable. There is an ongoing debate among psychologists in regards to whether intelligence declines with age or not. Fluid intelligence helps us find solutions in all these situations.
You use it when dealing with a novel issue for the first time. Explore new ideas and activities that will challenge your brain and make it work a bit harder. This will help you achieve your intellectual capacity and upgrade your thinking and reasoning skills. Choose a date and time below to tune in to the broadcast in your own local time zone. When did you last find yourself in a novel situation and what did you do?
Share it with us in the comment below! Mindvalley is creating a global school that delivers transformational education for all ages. Powered by community. Fueled by fun. We are dedicated to ensuring that humans live happier, healthier, and more fulfilled lives by plugging in the gaps that conventional education failed to teach us. We do this by organising real-world events around the world and producing world-class quality programmes in several areas of transformation, including mind, body, and performance.
But what fluid reasoning is exactly and why is it so important to work on its development? We will answer all of these questions and even more in this article: What is the fluid reasoning skill?
Why is fluid reasoning important? What is fluid intelligence in psychology?
How to develop fluid reasoning abilities? What is the main difference between fluid and crystallized intelligence? Why Is Fluid Reasoning Important?Thanks for helping us catch any problems with articles on DeepDyve. We'll do our best to fix them. Check all that apply - Please note that only the first page is available if you have not selected a reading option after clicking "Read Article". Include any more information that will help us locate the issue and fix it faster for you.
No functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI studies have directly examined fluid reasoning in ADHD which is surprising given that studies demonstrate a consistent network of brain regions involved in fluid reasoning that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD. Twenty-two right-handed, non-medicated children 12 ADHD, 10 controls ages 8—12 years completed a fluid reasoning task during which fMRI data were collected. The primary comparison of interest was activation during the fluid reasoning compared to the control condition.
Behavioral data showed that children with ADHD tended to be less accurate with faster reaction times in the fluid reasoning condition compared to controls, and were significantly less accurate in the control condition. Controls activated more than participants with ADHD in the right intraparietal sulcus and the left lateral cerebellum in the fluid reasoning condition. Results showed hypoactivation in ADHD in regions critical for fluid reasoning.
These results add to the literature suggesting a role for parietal and cerebellar regions in cognition and ADHD. Brain Research — Elsevier.
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In his book " Creativity is Forever ", Gary Davis reviewed the creativity literature from to and identified 22 reoccurring personality traits of creative people.
This included 16 "positive" traits e.
In her own review of the creativity literature, Bonnie Cramond found that many of these same traits overlap to a substantial degree with behavioral descriptions of Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder ADHD -- including higher levels of spontaneous idea generation, mind wandering, daydreaming, sensation seeking, energy, and impulsivity.
Research since then has supported the notion that people with ADHD characteristics are more likely to reach higher levels of creative thought and achievement than people without these characteristics see hereherehereherehereherehereherehereand here.
Recent work in cognitive neuroscience also suggests a connection between ADHD and creativity see here and here. Both creative thinkers and people with ADHD show difficulty suppressing brain activity coming from the " Imagination Network ":.
Of course, whether this is a positive thing or a negative thing depends on the context. The ability to control your attention is most certainly a valuable asset; d ifficulty inhibiting your inner mind can get in the way of paying attention to a boring classroom lecture or concentrating on a challenging problem. But the ability to keep your inner stream of fantasies, imagination, and daydreams on call can be immensely conducive to creativity.
By automatically treating ADHD characteristics as a disability-- as we so often do in an educational context-- we are unnecessarily letting too many competent and creative kids fall through the cracks. Nine percent of children aged years old are labeled ADHD on average per year, and placed in special education programs. The report concludes that "students with learning and attention issues are shut out of gifted and AP programs, held back in grade level and suspended from school at higher rates than other students.
Why does this matter? Consider a new study conducted by C. Matthew Fugate and colleagues. They selected a population of students with ADHD characteristics who were part of a summer residential camp for gifted, creative, and talented students. The large majority of the students were selected for the program because they either scored in the 90th percentile or above on a standardized test, or had a GPA of 3. They gave all the students tests of fluid reasoning, working memory, and creative cognition.
Fluid reasoning involves the ability to infer relations and spot novel and complex patterns that draw on minimal prior knowledge and expertise. Working memory involves the ability to control attention and hold multiple streams of information in mind at once. They measured creative cognition by having the students come up with novel drawings that included one of the following elements: an oval shape, incomplete figures, and two straight lines.
The researchers found that students with ADHD characteristics especially those who scored high in "inattention" had lower working memory scores than the non-ADHD students, even though they did not differ in their fluid reasoning ability.
This is consistent with past research showing that people with ADHD tend to score lower on tests of working memory see here and herebut these findings also suggest that people with ADHD can still be quite smart despite their reduced ability to hold multiple pieces of information in memory.Alterations in temporal processing may represent a primary cause of key symptoms in ADHD.
This study is aimed at investigating the nature of time-processing alterations in ADHD and assessing the possible utility of testing time estimation for clinical diagnostics. Retrospective verbal time estimation in the range of several minutes was examined in 50 boys with ADHD and 53 boys with other mental disorders.
All participants age 7—16 attended an outpatient clinic for ADHD diagnostics. Subjects with ADHD made longer and less accurate duration estimates than the clinical control group. In the ADHD group there was a correlation between processing speed and quality of time estimation that was not observed in the comparison group: higher processing speed indices were related to more accurate duration estimates. According to the triple pathway model [ 46 ], deficits in temporal processing may represent a primary cause of the key symptoms of ADHD in addition to inhibitory control and delay-related processes.
Studies of the association between impulsivity and time estimation could not consistently confirm the hypothesis that deficits in time estimation rely on impulsivity [ 2202526 ]. In clinical studies it is not clear, if time perception may be correlated with impulsivity trait or if it may be correlated with symptoms of the mental disorder [ 49 ].
A recent study based on duration discrimination and controlled for a possible impulsivity bias has indicated the presence of a faster internal clock in children with ADHD [ 51 ]. In addition to the duration discrimination method, studies on temporal processing in ADHD have commonly employed reproduction and verbal time estimation tasks [ 748 ]. Contrary to studies based on duration discrimination and reproduction tasks, studies on verbal time estimation have yet to yield consistent findings [ 11 ].
Verbal time estimation tasks may be conducted with prospective or retrospective estimation. In a prospective estimation task, subjects know in advance that a duration judgment will be required. In a retrospective estimation task, subjects are asked for a judgment without prior warning subsequent to duration presentation [ 22 ].
Task demands may differ between these variants. Whereas cognitive resources are primarily allocated to temporal information in the prospective form, more cognitive resources are devoted to non-temporal information in retrospective estimation [ 59 ].
Studies with prospective verbal time estimation [ 3 — 52330 ] have yet to yield significant group differences. Prevatt et al. In general, earlier studies have provided evidence that suggests that retrospective verbal time estimation is impaired in subjects with ADHD, while indicating there may be no or only slight prospective time estimation impairment.
With regard to clinical samples and the consequences of ADHD in daily life, two neglected but possibly important factors were addressed in the present study. Firstly, most earlier studies compared subjects with ADHD to control subjects without any remarkable psychiatric symptoms.
However, the challenge in clinical diagnostics is to distinguish ADHD sensu stricto from other syndromes with partially similar symptoms. If tests of time perception were indeed instrumental in diagnostics [ 21 ], it would be important to know whether alterations in temporal processing are specific to ADHD or rather a trans-nosographic phenomenon.
For example, Smith et al. This is in line with results from Bauermeister et al. To clarify this issue, participants of the present study were tested with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC-IV in addition to retrospective time estimation task to compare time estimation skills with performance on other tasks. Furthermore, the control subjects did not have an ADHD diagnosis, but displayed symptoms such as hyperactivity or impulsivity, which may emulate true ADHD.
Secondly, time estimation tasks were designed to be more relevant to situations in daily life e.No functional magnetic resonance imaging fMRI studies have directly examined fluid reasoning in ADHD which is surprising given that studies demonstrate a consistent network of brain regions involved in fluid reasoning that are also implicated in the pathogenesis of ADHD.
Twenty-two right-handed, non-medicated children 12 ADHD, 10 controls ages 8—12 years completed a fluid reasoning task during which fMRI data were collected. The primary comparison of interest was activation during the fluid reasoning compared to the control condition.
What Is Fluid Reasoning And Why Is It So Important?
Behavioral data showed that children with ADHD tended to be less accurate with faster reaction times in the fluid reasoning condition compared to controls, and were significantly less accurate in the control condition. Controls activated more than participants with ADHD in the right intraparietal sulcus and the left lateral cerebellum in the fluid reasoning condition. Results showed hypoactivation in ADHD in regions critical for fluid reasoning. These results add to the literature suggesting a role for parietal and cerebellar regions in cognition and ADHD.
ADHD is characterized by problems with inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity causing significant impairment in multiple settings. Accumulating evidence indicates that ADHD is associated with core deficits in executive functioning Barkley, ; Nigg et al.
Executive functioning encompasses a diverse set of cognitive processes including higher order planning, working memory, inhibition, and set shifting. Several programs of research have contributed to the large literature on the executive functioning deficits associated with ADHD, including state-regulation deficits Douglas, ; Douglas, ; Leth-Steenson et al.
Although there is broad agreement that many ADHD children show some form of impairment in executive functioning, studies have not been consistent in associating specific executive functioning domains with ADHD Barkley, ; Marks et al. For example, studies have associated ADHD with impairment in response inhibition as indexed by errors of commission on a continuous performance test; Barkley, ; Nigg et al.
Other studies have suggested that ADHD children have slower and more variable response speed as a common feature across all cognitive tasks Castellanos and Tannock, ; Kuntsi et al.
Fluid reasoning, also known as analogical or relational reasoning, is the ability to manipulate representations among stimuli in order to reason, plan, and problem solve using attentional, working memory, and cognitive perceptual skills Cho et al. It involves relational integration, inhibitory control, and resolution of interference and is considered a core component of fluid intelligence Morrison et al. In fact, fluid reasoning appears critical for all tasks identified with executive functioning Cho et al.
The fact that working memory, attention, inhibition, and interference resolution are key to successful fluid reasoning Cho et al. And, in fact, it has been demonstrated that individuals with ADHD perform more poorly on such tasks which are considered analogs of non-verbal IQ da Rocha et al. This improvement is unlikely due to practice effects because the construct is typically stable on test-retest intervals Nyden et al.
Thus, the cognitive training literature further supports a relationship between attention, inhibition, working memory, and fluid reasoning. The network of brain regions involved in fluid reasoning is comprised of the frontopolar region, middle and inferior frontal gyri, and parietal and occipital regions Cho et al.
Some studies also report a role for the cerebellum in fluid reasoning Kalbfleisch et al. The same regions involved in fluid reasoning are also implicated by both functional and structural imaging studies in the pathogenesis of ADHD Dickstein et al.
However, no studies were found specifically examining brain activation differences in individuals with ADHD on fluid reasoning tasks. Rubia and colleagues reported findings comparing children with ADHD to those with conduct disorder on a task requiring cognitive flexibility or switching Rubia et al.
The data revealed that only individuals with ADHD demonstrated a switch reaction time cost and that this was associated with hypoactivation in the right inferior prefrontal region.
Hypoactivation in frontal regions anterior cingulate was also observed on a response inhibition task for individuals with ADHD compared to controls which was theorized to be related to deficits in task switching Tamm et al. Thus, indirect imaging evidence from tasks involving cognitive flexibility and task switching suggests that individuals with ADHD may under-activate brain regions associated with fluid reasoning.
The current study examined brain activation differences among ADHD participants compared to typically developing controls during a fluid reasoning task Eslinger et al. We argue that it may be important to examine fluid reasoning in ADHD given its relationship to known neuropsychological and behavioral deficits in ADHD. Fluid reasoning has also been linked to social competence in children with ADHD Schafer and Semrud-Clikeman,and low fluid reasoning in children predicts poorer academic outcomes Lynn et al.
We hypothesized that individuals with ADHD would perform more poorly on the fluid reasoning task than controls. We hypothesized that children with ADHD compared to controls would show hypoactivation in the regions previously shown to be involved in fluid reasoning, i. During the control condition, the ADHD group was significantly less accurate than controls effect size 1.
During the control condition, the ADHD and control groups performed similarly in terms of reaction time.
Means and standard deviations for behavioral performance in the scanner are reported in Table 2. Both ADHD and controls activated a similar network of cortical regions to complete the fluid reasoning task. As shown in figure 1these areas included frontal regions bilaterally e.Post a Comment. Photo Credit: education-evaluations. I often see this listed on neuropsychological and psycho-educational testing but what does it mean and how does it impact education?
Fluid reasoning is related to math achievement, written expression, and to a lesser degree, reading skills.
James, my most academically skilled child has a relative weakness in fluid reasoning. He falls into the borderline range below low average with a standard score of James is a great problem solver as long as the problem is straightforward. This is an example of a problem with fluid reasoning skills. Margaret has a fluid reasoning standard score of 85 which puts her in the low average range.
I know her fluid reasoning ability is greatly impacted by her inattention executive functioning issues. Working memory impacts fluid reasoning. Many tests that determine fluid reasoning use one of two methods to determine fluid reasoning.
Understanding Your Child's WPPSI and WISC Test Score
One is using a rapid-timed test. This method relies more heavily on someone's capacity for working memory. The second method uses an untimed test. The untimed method does not rely as much on working memory and gives more time to use other cognitive functions to complete the task. I know for Joseph, due to his slow processing speed, he can show his intelligence and fluid reasoning skills better with an untimed test. If you have a child with impaired processing speed it is important you ask for some of the testing to be untimed to allow your child to show their ability!
What is the Impact of Fluid Reasoning? James, my child with the lowest fluid reasoning score, has ADHD and Autism along with battling low levels of depression so I see this correlation personally. Academically, here are some things you may see your child exhibit if they are struggling with fluid reasoning: Has difficulty with recognizing, forming, and understanding concepts.
Has difficulty with determining a relationship in a pattern. Has difficulty with understanding the consequences of an issue or action.